Although social security agreements vary in terms of coverage, their intent is similar depending on the terms agreed by the two signatories. The main objective of such an agreement is to eliminate the double social security contributions incurred when a worker from one country works in another country and is required to pay social security contributions to both countries whose income is the same. A non-resident right to assistance to foreigners, absent for six consecutive months or more in the United States, must also have resided for 5 years in the United States with the worker during which his relationship with the worker existed. For example, a non-resident alien who is entitled to a spouse`s allowance and has been absent for six consecutive calendar months in the United States may be a citizen of a country that pays unlimited benefits to U.S. citizens outside that country`s borders. However, the spouse must also be married to the worker for 5 years while in the United States to obtain benefits abroad.9 Under U.S. law (42 U.S.C§ 402(t)(11)(E)), tabination agreements may include provisions that lift payment restrictions for all residents of countries with which the United States has an agreement. Including third-country nationals and non-resident foreign beneficiaries10 The social security provisions of the European Community (EC) do not replace the different national social security systems with a single European system. This would be impossible because of the large differences in living standards and social security systems between Member States. But what they do, according to the European Commission, is that whenever several states are involved, EU social security provisions determine which country must pay benefits and which national legislation applies. The basic principles are simple: when a worker is to be posted to another Member State, an A1 certificate (formerly E-101 certificate) should be applied for in the Member State where social security is renewed. In the host State, the A1 waives any social security contributions. Provisions to remove double coverage for workers are similar in all U.S.

agreements. Each sets a basic rule that refers to a worker`s place of employment. Under this fundamental “rule of territoriality,” an employee who would otherwise be covered by both the U.S. system and a foreign system is subject exclusively to the coverage laws of the country in which he or she works. The agreements allow SSA to add up U.S. and foreign coverage credits only if the worker has at least six-quarters of U.S. coverage. Similarly, a person may need minimum coverage under the foreign system to have the United States. The coverage is charged on compliance with the eligibility conditions of foreign benefits. Double taxation may also apply to U.S.

citizens and residents who work for foreign subsidiaries of U.S. companies. This is likely the case when a U.S. company has followed the usual practice of entering into an agreement with the Treasury pursuant to Section 3121(l) of the Internal Income Code to provide social security coverage in the United States. . . .