However, the complexity of financial instruments means that there can be many opportunities to vary, make the deal more attractive or trade in order to reduce risk. Investors can minimize risk by staging the maturity of shares so that increasing premiums are gradually paid to investors if they hold the investments longer in the company. They may even offer discounts for higher share purchases at the beginning or create penalties in the contract for an early assignment. The benefits to the company may be reduced or subordinated to the fact that the company reaches certain milestones. Investments can be backed by stable funds, bonds or other instruments, which effectively gives them a return stage, so investors don`t lose all funds in the event of a disaster.