On 19 October, a statement was also made to Parliament that a political agreement had been reached. 7.In summer of 2017, the two sides agreed on the order of negotiations. They would first look at exit, starting with three specific areas arising from the UK`s exit: the protection of civil rights after Brexit, the financial settlement and issues related to the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland. They also agreed that “sufficient progress” was needed on these withdrawal issues before discussions could be initiated on the second element of Article 50, namely the framework for future relations between the EU and the UK. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, a trade fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms. [27] In addition, the Equal Competition Mechanism has been postponed from the legally binding withdrawal agreement to the political declaration,[24] and the line of the political statement that “the United Kingdom will consider taking into account alignment with trade union rules in the relevant areas” has been removed. [26] Clause 31, which must provide in the October Act for Parliament`s approval for negotiations on future relations, has disappeared. Under the old bill, the House of Commons should have approved the government`s negotiating objectives in the next phase of the talks.

The parliamentary approval process for future relations agreements, which will be negotiated with the EU at a later date, has also disappeared. Legal protection for refugee children who are reunited with family members in the UK has been watered down. The bill removes, by Article 37, the obligations relating to unaccompanied children seeking asylum in the EU, with the obligation to make a declaration within two months of the adoption of the law. The powers and rules of the withdrawal agreement to guarantee the rights of EU citizens will be implemented. 5 European Union Bill (Withdrawal Agreement) (session 2019): services.parliament.uk/Bills/2019-20/Europeanunionwithdrawal agreement.html [access November 2019] On the issue of the Irish border, there is a northern Ireland protocol (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a retreat position that will only come into force if effective alternative arrangements are not demonstrated before the end of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out.